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 09-30-2007, 12:00 PM #1 Silvenon User     Join Date: May 2007 Posts: 492 Submissions (1) Coding an efficient knockback (vJass) INTRODUCTION + REQUIREMENTS Knockback is probably one of the most popular things in JASS, because it can be made to be very smooth. Now, the purpose of this tutorial is how to make an efficient knockback - using vJass. Just a good knowledge of structs is required. You can find more info on the structs in the jasshelper manual. We aren't going to use the game cache at all, and it will still be MUI. PARAMETERS First, let's examine our four main parameters: u = the unit that is being knockbackedd = the distance the unit is knockbacked toa = the angle (direction) - in RADIANSw = the duration of the knockbackRADIANS Now, why am I using radians instead of degrees? Simple, so I don't have to convert degrees to radians and other way around. I have to convert degrees to radians when I'm using trigonometrical functions and I have to convert radians to degrees when I'm using Atan2() function. Example: JASS:```function IHateDegrees takes nothing returns nothing local real a = 30 // degrees call Sin(a * bj_DEGTORAD) // ... // ... set a = Atan2(y, x) * bj_RADTODEG endfunction``` It's more efficient to work with radians all the time. All natives that work with angles take radians, except these two: SetUnitFacing(), GetUnitFacing(). That could be annoying sometimes, but get used to it.Now, let's actually code something here, for starters, let's make a function that will take our four main parameters: function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w returns nothing TIMER The basic thing you must have when you're making a knockback code is a timer, because a knockback is moving a unit a bit a time. That timer will periodically fire a function that will move the knockbacked unit a bit. We are going to make a global timer using the global block (vJass feature), you'll see later why: JASS:```globals timer Tim = CreateTimer() endglobals``` INTERVAL Now, when having a timer, you must also have to have the interval of timer's periodic executions. This will tell the timer how fast he has to execute. The best way is to make a constant interval, we have 2 ways of achieving that, we can:Make a global block, then create a (constant) global real which will hold the intervalMake a constant function which will return the interval There is actually no difference between those two methods afaik, so I'll choose the second one, because I want the interval to be seperated from the other globals for some reason. The question you are probably (or probably not) asking is: what interval is best to put? I, personally, use 0.035, but it seems like 0.04 is the most popular one, so we are going to use that one (you can use any you like, but recommended is somewhere between 0.03 and 0.04 so we can achieve a smooth effect): JASS:```constant function Interval takes nothing returns real return 0.04 endfunction``` NUMBER OF EXECUTIONS Now when that is clear, we have one last thing we need to have: the number of executions. We have to calculate how many executions the timer has to perform, that is necessary for the timer to know when to stop. We will going to name that variable q and it will be an integer (makes sense). How to calculate q? That's simple, it's the duration divided by the interval. I hope you know math well enough to know why is it like that, if not, then learn. We will convert the result to integer, so we can put it in our integer variable: JASS:```function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w returns nothing local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) endfunction``` What now? First, we need to create a function that will be assigned to moving the unit (that function will be executed periodically by the timer). Now we must name that function somehow: function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing STRUCT The function takes nothing and returns nothing because it will be executed by the timer, and we all know that when executing a function like that, we can not transfer parameters. We have to think of a way to transfer the values from Knockback to Knockback_Execute. Hmm.... I know! Lets use structs, we will create a simple struct that will hold the values we need to transfer: JASS:```struct Knockback_Data unit u real a endstruct``` And let's create a global array of Knockback_Datas (again, later you'll see why): JASS:```globals timer Tim = CreateTimer() Knockback_Data array Ar endglobals``` What about the rest of the parameters? Well, this part gets a little complicated, but don't lose hope! We're going to go through this together. A knockback is a process in which the unit is pushed back and then it is slowing down until it reaches the speed of 0, in other words, until it stops. So we have to have create two new variables:d1 = the "bit" in "moving a unit a bit a time"d2 = will decrease d1 with each execution CALCULATIONS The variable d2 is required because it will decrease the d1 until it reaches 0 (or slightly less than that), that will cause deceleration in unit movement and then the unit will eventually stop. Now we'll gonna do some calculations, which is a little advanced math, but don't worry, I'll try to explain everything. I suggest you take a paper and a pencil/pen, because this calculations look ugly when written like this. I'm going to use jass tags so it's more readable (I hope): d1 = (d - d2) + (d - 2 * d2) + (d - 3 * d2) + ... + (d - q * d2) A math rule allows us to write that like this: d1 = q * d - q * (q + 1) * d1 / 2 We'll just make a supstitute for 'q + 1' so the calculation looks a little nicer (yeah, right...), lets name it x: d1 = q * (d - (x * d2) / 2) Lets fix it a little bit: d1 = q * ((2 * d - x * d2) / 2) When d1 reaches 0: 0 = q * ((2 * d - x * d2) / 2) Now we'll multiply the equation by 2: 0 = q * (2 * d - x * d2) 0 = 2 * d * q - x * d2 * q We'll going to return 'q + 1' now: 0 = 2 * d * q - (q + 1) * d2 * q We'll going to move '- (q + 1) * d2 * q' to the other side: (q + 1) * d2 * q = 2 * d * q On the both sides we have q so if we divide the equation with 'q', they will be gone (meaning they will turn to 1 and we all know that 'x * 1' is 'x'): (q + 1) * d2 = 2 * d d2 = 2 * d / (q + 1) Now we have: JASS:```d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) d2 = d1 / q``` So we'll add those two in our struct: JASS:```struct Knockback_Data unit u real a real d1 real d2 endstruct``` So, now we have to create that struct as a local in the Knockback function and set its values: JASS:```function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q endfunction``` I think everything is clear here, we need to transfer the knockbacked unit, the angle, d1 and d2 to the Knockback_Execute function. The important part in knockbacking is to pause the knockbacked unit, because not pausing it can cause undesireable effects (like not moving in a straight line). But beware, pausing a unit can sometimes be a bit.......screwed up. In this case it's important that we know that it also pauses buffs, so I suggest you code with that fact on your mind. Now lets pause it: JASS:```function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q call PauseUnit(u, true) endfunction``` STOPPING ANY ORDERS For moving the unit, we'll going to use SetUnitX/Y, because it has (in this case) a better effect than SetUnitPosition. But SetUnitPosition can break channeling spells, moreover, stop the unit's orders (among other things), and it is important for the knockback to be able to do that. We'll going to move the unit to the same point it already is, because we just want to stop its orders: JASS:```function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q call SetUnitPosition(u, GetUnitX(u), GetUnitY(u)) call PauseUnit(u, true) endfunction``` NUMBER OF KNOCKBACKS Now, lets get back to that misterious global timer. The reason I'm using a global timer is because I don't want to use game cache. Instead of creating a local timer every time, attaching the struct to it and execute the movement in the Knockback_Execute function for each unit separately, I'm going to use a single timer that will perform each active knockback. I'm going to pause it when there are no active knockbacks (and unpause it when there are). I'll do this by creating a new integer global that will tell me how many units do I have to move. I'll set it's initial value to 0, because in the start, there will be 0 active knockbacks: JASS:```globals timer Tim = CreateTimer() Knockback_Data array Ar integer Total = 0 endglobals``` Then I'm going to start the timer in the Knockback function if Total is equal to 0, because that will mean it is paused and it needs to be started again because the function was called (which means there is a knockback to be performed): JASS:```function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q call SetUnitPosition(u, GetUnitX(u), GetUnitY(u)) call PauseUnit(u, true) if Total == 0 then call TimerStart(Tim, Interval(), true, function Knockback_Execute) endif endfunction``` Now we have to tell the system that a new knockback is active, we'll going to do that by increasing Total by 1. Another thing we also have to do is add the Knockback_Data that was created (kd) in the Knockback_Data array (Ar), but the index of the first one will be 0: JASS:```function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q call SetUnitPosition(u, GetUnitX(u), GetUnitY(u)) call PauseUnit(u, true) if Total == 0 then call TimerStart(Tim, Interval(), true, function Knockback_Execute) endif set Total = Total + 1 set Ar[Total - 1] = kd endfunction``` "KNOCKBACK_EXECUTE" FUNCTION We have to move to the Knockback_Execute function now, what we'll do is create a local Knockback_Data variable, so we can handle each knockback (that needs to be processed) more easily: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd endfunction``` We are going to have a loop now, because we need to process each active knockback, so we'll also have to create a local integer for the loop: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 endfunction``` And because we are going to move units, we are going to add two coordinate variables (x and y): JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y endfunction``` Now we will make a loop that will stop when i (the variable, not me) reaches Total, and just in case of it skipping Total, we'll make it stop when i is equal or greater than Total: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y loop exitwhen i >= Total set i = i + 1 endloop endfunction``` In the beginning of the loop we'll set kd to Ar[i] (so it's easier to handle): JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set i = i + 1 endloop endfunction``` MOVING THE UNIT Remember what we said about d1? It is the "bit" in "moving a unit a bit a time", we will put its destination coordinates in variables, then we'll move the unit to those coordinates with SetUnitX/Y: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Cos(kd.a) set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Sin(kd.a) call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) set i = i + 1 endloop endfunction``` I hope we all know how to do a polar projection with coordinates, because that is what I did here. Now, after that we need to decrease d1 by d2 (that's what I explained in the "calculations" part): JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Cos(kd.a) set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Sin(kd.a) call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 set i = i + 1 endloop endfunction``` DESTROYING THE STRUCT When a knockback finishes, we have to destroy its struct, right? The knockback stops when d1 reaches 0, because that means that the unit has stopped moving. We'll check if d1 reached 0 (or less) with an if/then/else: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Cos(kd.a) set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Sin(kd.a) call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 if kd.d1 <= 0 then call kd.destroy() endif set i = i + 1 endloop endfunction``` But when we are destroying that struct, it will leave an empty space, and that is definitely not good. We will have to fill it out somehow, I think the easiest way would be to move the last struct to that empty place (we'll going to do that before destroying the struct): JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Cos(kd.a) set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Sin(kd.a) call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 if kd.d1 <= 0 then set Ar[i] = Ar[Total - 1] set Total = Total - 1 call kd.destroy() endif set i = i + 1 endloop endfunction``` I used Ar[Total - 1] because the first index of the array is 0, not 1 (I hope that's clear). I'm setting Total to Total - 1 because when a struct is destroyed, that means there is a finished knockback that is no longer active, but done. One thing we're forgetting (or maybe not) is unpausing the unit when the knockback is over: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Cos(kd.a) set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Sin(kd.a) call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 if kd.d1 <= 0 then call PauseUnit(kd.u, false) set Ar[i] = Ar[Total - 1] set Total = Total - 1 call kd.destroy() endif set i = i + 1 endloop endfunction``` Also, when there are no active knockbacks (meaning Total is equal to 0), we need to pause the timer: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Cos(kd.a) set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * Sin(kd.a) call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 if kd.d1 <= 0 then call PauseUnit(kd.u, false) set Ar[i] = Ar[Total - 1] set Total = Total - 1 call kd.destroy() endif set i = i + 1 endloop if Total == 0 then call PauseTimer(Tim) endif endfunction``` SINE AND COSINE Pay attention to that Cos() and Sin() in the Knockback_Execute function, we don't have to call them every 0.04 seconds, right? That's really inefficient, we can just store them in a variable. Moreover, we are going to put them in our struct: JASS:```struct Knockback_Data unit u real a real d1 real d2 real sin real cos endstruct``` Now, what we're going to do now is give those variables a value: JASS:```function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q set kd.sin = Sin(a) set kd.cos = Cos(a) call SetUnitPosition(u, GetUnitX(u), GetUnitY(u)) call PauseUnit(u, true) if Total == 0 then call TimerStart(Tim, Interval(), true, function Knockback_Execute) endif set Total = Total + 1 set Ar[Total - 1] = kd endfunction``` But note that then we don't need the angle variable in our struct anymore, so we can remove it: JASS:```struct Knockback_Data unit u real a real d1 real d2 real sin real cos endstruct function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q set kd.sin = Sin(a) set kd.cos = Cos(a) call SetUnitPosition(u, GetUnitX(u), GetUnitY(u)) call PauseUnit(u, true) if Total == 0 then call TimerStart(Tim, Interval(), true, function Knockback_Execute) endif set Total = Total + 1 set Ar[Total - 1] = kd endfunction``` Also, don't forget to do use them in the Knockback_Execute function: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.cos set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.sin call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 if kd.d1 <= 0 then call PauseUnit(kd.u, false) set Ar[i] = Ar[Total - 1] set Total = Total - 1 call kd.destroy() endif set i = i + 1 endloop if Total == 0 then call PauseTimer(Tim) endif endfunction``` MAP BOUNDS CAUTION I think we all know that when a unit (or anything else) gets outside the map bounds, the game crashes. What we're going to do is prevent our knockback code to push the unit outside those bounds. Instead, we'll make the unit stop if it reaches the bounds. First, we will implement Vexorian's CheckPathability function, which is very useful I must say. Then lets put the function on the top of our script (or in the custom script section, wherever you're coding this). Now when we have that implemented, here's what we're going to do: in the Knockback_Execute function we're going to check if the point that the unit is supposed to move to is pathable, if it's not, then that means something is already there (tree, building, map bound, cliffs etc.). Here's how we're going to do that: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.cos set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.sin if CheckPathability(x, y) then call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) endif set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 if kd.d1 <= 0 or not CheckPathability(x, y) then call PauseUnit(kd.u, false) set Ar[i] = Ar[Total - 1] set Total = Total - 1 call kd.destroy() endif set i = i + 1 endloop if Total == 0 then call PauseTimer(Tim) endif endfunction``` The problem here is that we're creating an item and removing it every 0.04 seconds, that's inefficient. We can make a single global item and just move it around in each execution: JASS:```globals timer Tim = CreateTimer() Knockback_Data array Ar integer Total = 0 item I = CreateItem('ciri', 0, 0) endglobals function CheckPathabilityTrickGet takes nothing returns nothing set bj_rescueChangeColorUnit = bj_rescueChangeColorUnit or GetEnumItem() != I endfunction function CheckPathabilityTrick takes real x, real y returns boolean local integer i = 30 local real X local real Y local rect r call SetItemPosition(I, x, y) set X = GetItemX(I) - x set Y = GetItemY(I) - y if X * X + Y * Y <= 100 then return true endif set r = Rect(x - i, y - i, x + i, y + i) set bj_rescueChangeColorUnit = false call EnumItemsInRect(r, null, function CheckPathabilityTrickGet) call RemoveRect(r) set r = null return bj_rescueChangeColorUnit endfunction function CheckPathability takes real x, real y returns boolean local boolean b = CheckPathabilityTrick(x, y) call SetItemVisible(I, false) return b endfunction``` I also got rid of those darn Pow() functions, I don't know why Vex used them. I highlighted all the lines I changed, so it is easier for you to see what I changed. HITTING TREES You have probably seen that some knockbacked units take down trees if they bump into them. So that's what we're also going to do here, otherwise, the unit would stop if it rans into a tree also (the CheckPathability part). What we'll do is add a new parameter in our Knockback function: function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w, real r returns nothing This parameter represents the range in which the unit must come within the tree in order to take it down. We'll make it so if you put 0 as a range parameter, no trees will be destroyed. We have to put a new variable in our struct (the one that will hold the range): JASS:```struct Knockback_Data unit u real d1 real d2 real sin real cos real r endstruct function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w, real r returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q set kd.sin = Sin(a) set kd.cos = Cos(a) set kd.r = r call SetUnitPosition(u, GetUnitX(u), GetUnitY(u)) call PauseUnit(u, true) if Total == 0 then call TimerStart(Tim, Interval(), true, function Knockback_Execute) endif set Total = Total + 1 set Ar[Total - 1] = kd endfunction``` This is a function I wrote (actually copied from Hero12341234's Tree Revival tutorial, hehe, sorry Hero....): JASS:```function Knockback_TreeFilter takes nothing returns boolean local integer d = GetDestructableTypeId(GetFilterDestructable()) return d == 'ATtr' or d == 'BTtw' or d == 'KTtw' or d == 'YTft' or d == 'JTct' or d == 'YTst' or d == 'YTct' or d == 'YTwt' or d == 'JTwt' or d == 'JTwt' or d == 'FTtw' or d == 'CTtr' or d == 'ITtw' or d == 'NTtw' or d == 'OTtw' or d == 'ZTtw' or d == 'WTst' or d == 'LTlt' or d == 'GTsh' or d == 'Xtlt' or d == 'WTtw' or d == 'Attc' or d == 'BTtc' or d == 'CTtc' or d == 'ITtc' or d == 'NTtc' or d == 'ZTtc' endfunction``` With this function we will check if the destructible (or, in JASS, destructable, I don't know which is right anymore) in range is a tree. Ok, now we will go to the Knockback_Execute function, because from there we're going to destroy trees. This part is kinda weird because we'll have to create a rect, because the only way we could reach "destructibles in range" is through EnumDestructablesInRect() function. We will create a rect out of range, there's a BJ that does that: JASS:```function GetRectFromCircleBJ takes location center, real radius returns rect local real centerX = GetLocationX(center) local real centerY = GetLocationY(center) return Rect(centerX - radius, centerY - radius, centerX + radius, centerY + radius) endfunction``` We will use pure natives, I just showed you that function so it's easier to understand what I'm doing. So basically, in the Knockback_Execute function: Code: ```centerX = x centerY = y radius = kd.r``` Now we'll create a local rect variable and we will check if a destructible is in the circle: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y local rect r loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.cos set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.sin if kd.r != 0 then set r = Rect(x - kd.r, y - kd.r, x + kd.r, y + kd.r) endif if CheckPathability(x, y) then call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) endif set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 if kd.d1 <= 0 or not CheckPathability(x, y) then call PauseUnit(kd.u, false) set Ar[i] = Ar[Total - 1] set Total = Total - 1 call kd.destroy() endif set i = i + 1 endloop if Total == 0 then call PauseTimer(Tim) endif endfunction``` We'll create a new function that we will use for EnumDestructablesInRect() function, it will kill every picked destructable: JASS:```function Knockback_KillTree takes nothing returns nothing call KillDestructable(GetEnumDestructable()) endfunction``` We will put it above Knocback_Execute function, so we can reach it. Now we have an action and a condition, we can use EnumDestructablesInRect() now, but first we have to create a boolexpr that will check if the picked destructable is a tree: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y local rect r local boolexpr b loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.cos set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.sin if kd.r != 0 then set r = Rect(x - kd.r, y - kd.r, x + kd.r, y + kd.r) set b = Filter(function Knockback_TreeFilter) call EnumDestructablesInRect(r, b, function Knockback_KillTree) call RemoveRect(r) call DestroyBoolExpr(b) endif if CheckPathability(x, y) then call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) endif set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 if kd.d1 <= 0 or not CheckPathability(x, y) then call PauseUnit(kd.u, false) set Ar[i] = Ar[Total - 1] set Total = Total - 1 call kd.destroy() endif set i = i + 1 endloop if Total == 0 then call PauseTimer(Tim) endif endfunction``` But instead of calling the Filter all the time, since the boolexpr is always the same, we can make a global boolexpr and set it in on map initialization: JASS:```globals timer Tim = CreateTimer() Knockback_Data array Ar integer Total = 0 item I = CreateItem('ciri', 0, 0) boolexpr Filter endglobals function Trig_Map_Initialization_Actions takes nothing returns nothing set Filter = Filter(function Knockback_TreeFilter) endfunction``` Note that this would mean that you need to transfer the Knockback_TreeFilter function somewhere reachable by Trig_Map_Initialization_Actions, now it doesn't have to be reachable by Knockback_Execute function anymore. SPECIAL EFFECTS In some knockbacks there are special effects involved during the process. We're going to make two types of making a special effect:Creating and destroying the special effect in the Knockback_Execute functionCreating a special effect attached to the knockbacked unit, and when the knockback ends, destroy it First we are going to make a new integer parameter that will represent the type. 0 will be none (no special effects), 1 will be type 1 and 2 will be type 2: function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w, real r, integer t returns nothing Now, of course, we have to add the string parameter for the special effect path, and if the type is 2, a string parameter for the attachment point. We're going to make it so if you input 1 as the type, you can put "" as attachment point. Just to make something clear, in the type 1 we're going to create the special effect at the position of knockbacked unit (and destroy it) periodically: function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w, real r, integer t, string s, string p returns nothing If you input 0 as type, you can put "" for s and p. We have to create two new variables in our struct (we're going to leave out type variable, you'll see why) and we're going to set their intial values to 'none': JASS:```struct Knockback_Data unit u real d1 real d2 real sin real cos real r string s = "" effect e = null endstruct``` What the hell is 'effect e'? This is used for the type 2, so it can be reachable when we want to destroy it. Lets attach those parameters now, with few if/then/elses: JASS:```function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w, real r, integer t, string s, string p returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q set kd.sin = Sin(a) set kd.cos = Cos(a) set kd.r = r if s != "" and s != null then if t == 2 then if p != "" and p != null then set kd.e = AddSpecialEffectTarget(s, u, p) else set kd.e = AddSpecialEffectTarget(s, u, "chest") endif elseif t == 1 then set kd.s = s endif endif call SetUnitPosition(u, GetUnitX(u), GetUnitY(u)) call PauseUnit(u, true) if Total == 0 then call TimerStart(Tim, Interval(), true, function Knockback_Execute) endif set Total = Total + 1 set Ar[Total - 1] = kd endfunction``` I made it so if you pick type 2, but use attachment point "", the attachment point will be "chest" (that's like a default value). Now lets go to Knockback_Execute function: JASS:```function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y local rect r local boolexpr b loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] if kd.s != null and kd.s != null then set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) call DestroyEffect(AddSpecialEffect(kd.s, x, y) set x = x + kd.d1 * kd.cos set y = y + kd.d1 * kd.sin else set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.cos set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.sin endif if kd.r != 0 then set r = Rect(x - kd.r, y - kd.r, x + kd.r, y + kd.r) set b = Filter(function Knockback_TreeFilter) call EnumDestructablesInRect(r, b, function Knockback_KillTree) call RemoveRect(r) call DestroyBoolExpr(b) endif if CheckPathability(x, y) then call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) endif set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 if kd.d1 <= 0 or not CheckPathability(x, y) then if kd.e != null then call DestroyEffect(kd.e) endif call PauseUnit(kd.u, false) set Ar[i] = Ar[Total - 1] set Total = Total - 1 call kd.destroy() endif set i = i + 1 endloop if Total == 0 then call PauseTimer(Tim) endif endfunction``` I did that weird if/then/else with s to avoid calling GetUnitX/Y twice. You see now why I put effect e in the struct, right? I did it because it was possible to do without attaching type variable too, with a few if/then/elses everything is possible ;). For the end I just want to make on more thing (I didn't know where to squeeze it): JASS:```function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w, real r, integer t, string s, string p returns Knockback_Data local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q set kd.sin = Sin(a) set kd.cos = Cos(a) set kd.r = r if s != "" and s != null then if t == 2 then if p != "" and p != null then set kd.e = AddSpecialEffectTarget(s, u, p) else set kd.e = AddSpecialEffectTarget(s, u, "chest") endif elseif t == 1 then set kd.s = s endif endif call SetUnitPosition(u, GetUnitX(u), GetUnitY(u)) call PauseUnit(u, true) if Total == 0 then call TimerStart(Tim, Interval(), true, function Knockback_Execute) endif set Total = Total + 1 set Ar[Total - 1] = kd return kd endfunction``` I put that if you want to mess with the knockback during it, for example if you want to: change the angle by changing kd.sin and kd.coschange the unit knockbacked, though that can lead to some screwy side-effectschange the special effect by changing kd.s/kd.e FEW TRICKS & TIPS We can put this code in the map header by putting it in a library, so it can be reachable by anywhere: JASS:```library Knockback struct Knockback_Data unit u real d1 real d2 real sin real cos real r string s = "" effect e = null endstruct globals timer Tim = CreateTimer() Knockback_Data array Ar integer Total = 0 item I = CreateItem('ciri', 0, 0) boolexpr Filter endglobals function CheckPathabilityTrickGet takes nothing returns nothing set bj_rescueChangeColorUnit = bj_rescueChangeColorUnit or GetEnumItem() != I endfunction function CheckPathabilityTrick takes real x, real y returns boolean local integer i = 30 local real X local real Y local rect r call SetItemPosition(I, x, y) set X = GetItemX(I) - x set Y = GetItemY(I) - y if X * X + Y * Y <= 100 then return true endif set r = Rect(x - i, y - i, x + i, y + i) set bj_rescueChangeColorUnit = false call EnumItemsInRect(r, null, function CheckPathabilityTrickGet) call RemoveRect(r) set r = null return bj_rescueChangeColorUnit endfunction function CheckPathability takes real x, real y returns boolean local boolean b = CheckPathabilityTrick(x, y) call SetItemVisible(I, false) return b endfunction function Knockback_TreeFilter takes nothing returns boolean local integer d = GetDestructableTypeId(GetFilterDestructable()) return d == 'ATtr' or d == 'BTtw' or d == 'KTtw' or d == 'YTft' or d == 'JTct' or d == 'YTst' or d == 'YTct' or d == 'YTwt' or d == 'JTwt' or d == 'JTwt' or d == 'FTtw' or d == 'CTtr' or d == 'ITtw' or d == 'NTtw' or d == 'OTtw' or d == 'ZTtw' or d == 'WTst' or d == 'LTlt' or d == 'GTsh' or d == 'Xtlt' or d == 'WTtw' or d == 'Attc' or d == 'BTtc' or d == 'CTtc' or d == 'ITtc' or d == 'NTtc' or d == 'ZTtc' endfunction constant function Interval takes nothing returns real return 0.04 endfunction function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing local Knockback_Data kd local integer i = 0 local real x local real y local rect r local boolexpr b loop exitwhen i >= Total set kd = Ar[i] if kd.s != null and kd.s != null then set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) call DestroyEffect(AddSpecialEffect(kd.s, x, y) set x = x + kd.d1 * kd.cos set y = y + kd.d1 * kd.sin else set x = GetUnitX(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.cos set y = GetUnitY(kd.u) + kd.d1 * kd.sin endif if kd.r != 0 then set r = Rect(x - kd.r, y - kd.r, x + kd.r, y + kd.r) set b = Filter(function Knockback_TreeFilter) call EnumDestructablesInRect(r, b, function Knockback_KillTree) call RemoveRect(r) call DestroyBoolExpr(b) endif if CheckPathability(x, y) then call SetUnitX(kd.u, x) call SetUnitY(kd.u, y) endif set kd.d1 = kd.d1 - kd.d2 if kd.d1 <= 0 or not CheckPathability(x, y) then if kd.e != null then call DestroyEffect(kd.e) endif call PauseUnit(kd.u, false) set Ar[i] = Ar[Total - 1] set Total = Total - 1 call kd.destroy() endif set i = i + 1 endloop if Total == 0 then call PauseTimer(Tim) endif endfunction function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w, real r, integer t, string s, string p returns Knockback_Data local Knockback_Data kd = Knockback_Data.create() local integer q = R2I(w / Interval()) set kd.u = u set kd.a = a set kd.d1 = 2 * d / (q + 1) set kd.d2 = kd.d1 / q set kd.sin = Sin(a) set kd.cos = Cos(a) set kd.r = r if s != "" and s != null then if t == 2 then if p != "" and p != null then set kd.e = AddSpecialEffectTarget(s, u, p) else set kd.e = AddSpecialEffectTarget(s, u, "chest") endif elseif t == 1 then set kd.s = s endif endif call SetUnitPosition(u, GetUnitX(u), GetUnitY(u)) call PauseUnit(u, true) if Total == 0 then call TimerStart(Tim, Interval(), true, function Knockback_Execute) endif set Total = Total + 1 set Ar[Total - 1] = kd return kd endfunction endlibrary``` Holy macarone, that's some code...... :). You can put that code in a trigger (not in the map header). Now when we put it in a library, we can make the functions/variables/structs that we don't want to be reachable private: JASS:```globals private timer Tim = CreateTimer() private Knockback_Data array Ar private integer Total = 0 private item I = CreateItem('ciri', 0, 0) boolexpr Filter endglobals private function CheckPathabilityTrickGet takes nothing returns nothing private function CheckPathabilityTrick takes real x, real y returns boolean private function CheckPathability takes real x, real y returns boolean private function Knockback_TreeFilter takes nothing returns boolean private constant function Interval takes nothing returns nothing private function Knockback_Execute takes nothing returns nothing``` We are not making boolexpr Filter private because we need it for the map initialization function and we are not making the Knockback_Data struct private, because the return value of Knockback/Ex function would be impossible to use. I hope you understand why we don't make Knockback function private (because then we couldn't use it at all, well, actually, outside the library) ;) I noticed (I don't know if you have) that we have a lot of parameters that we don't always use, so we can make that function KnockbackEx, and make a new function called Knockback that will take fewer parameters and set the rest of them to 'none': JASS:```function KnockbackEx takes unit u, real d, real a, real w, real r, integer t, string s, string p returns Knockback_Data function Knockback takes unit u, real d, real a, real w returns Knockback_Data return KnockbackEx(u, d, a, w, 0, 0, "", "") endfunction``` Of course, you don't have to leave out range parameter, you can put as many parameters you want to Knockback function. Remember to put Knockback function below KnockbackEx function, you probably know why, if you don't, you should :) LAST WORDS You can check the Knockback(Ex) function here. If you find any spelling mistake somewhere, or any error, please report it! I hope this tutorial helped someone